Meta-analysis of Alliance-Outcome Correlations

Forest Plot

Forest plot presenting data from each study as well as the overall, random effets aggregate estimate and the prediction interval.

Key Statistics

Key parameter estimates from a random effects meta-analysis using Restricted-Maximum Likelihood (REML) estimation. All analyses were performed using the metafor package available for R ( Additional information from the analysis is available on the 'Output' tab.


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This table provides the R output in raw form. This application uses the metafor package to perform the analyses. Note that we have used the Fisher z-transformation method when performing the meta-analysis. Thus, to replicate the values reported in Forest Plot, you will need to back transform to the correlation metric.



Select Data to Present

Choose which dataset to view. The default is the analysis dataset. That is the dataset used in the meta-analysis. If you would like to see the entire dataset, click on 'Full Dataset'.


Adler, J. V. (1988). A study of the working alliance in psychotherapy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia.

Allen, J.G., Tarnoff, G., & Coyne, L. (1985). Therapeutic alliance and long-term hospital treatment outcome.  Comprehensive Psychiatry, 26, 187-194.

Allen, J.G., Tarnoff, G., Coyne, L., Spohn, H.E., Buskirk, J.R., & Keller, M.W. (1986).  An innovative approach to assessing outcome of long-term psychiatric hospitalization. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 37, 376-380.

Andreoli, A., Frances, A., Gex-Mabry, M., Aapro, N., Gerin, P., & Dazord, A. (1993). Crisis intervention in depressed patients with and without DSM-II-R personality disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181, 732-737.

Ankuta, G.Y. (1993).  Initial and later therapeutic alliance and psychotherapy outcome.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation.  Michigan State University, East Lansing.

Arnow, B.A., Manber, R., Blasey, C., Blalock, J.A., Rothbaum, B.O., Thase, M.E., Vivian, D., Keller, M.B., Klein, D.N., Markowitz, J.C., Rush, A.J., Riso, L.P., & McCullough Jr., J.P. (2003). Therapeutic reactance as a predictor of outcome in the treatment of chronic depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 1025-1035.

Baldwin, S. A., Wampold, B. E., & Imel, Z. E. (2007). Untangling the alliance-outcome correlation: Exploring the relative importance of therapist and patient variability in the alliance. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(6), 842-852.

Barber, J. P., Connolly, M. B., Crits-Christoph, P., Gladis, L., & Siqueland, L. (2000). Alliance predicts patients' outcome beyond in-treatment change in symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(6), 1027-1032.

Barber, J. P., Gallop, R., Crits-Christoph, P., Barrett, M. S., Klostermann, S., McCarthy, K. S., et al. (2008). The role of the alliance and techniques in predicting outcome of supportive-expressive dynamic therapy for cocaine dependence. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 25(3), 461-482.

Barber, J. P., Gallop, R., Crits-Christoph, P., Frank, A., Thase, M. E., Weiss, R. D., et al. (2006). The role of therapist adherence, therapist competence, and alliance in predicting outcome of individual drug counseling: Results from the National Institute Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Psychotherapy Research, 16(2), 229-240.

Barber, J. P., Luborsky, L., Crits-Cristoph, P., Thase, M. E., Weiss, R., Frank, A., Onken, L., & Gallop, R. (1999). Therapeutic alliance as predictor of outcome in treatment of cocaine dependence. Psychotherapy Research, 9, 54-73.

Barber, J. P., Luborsky, L., Gallop, R., Crits-Christoph, P., Frank, A., Weiss, R. D., et al. (2001). Therapeutic alliance as a predictor of outcome and retention in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 119-124.

Barkham, M., Agnew, R.M., & Culverwell, A. (1993).  The California Psychotherapy Alliance Scales:  A pilot study of dimensions and elements.  British Journal of Medical Psychology, 66, 157-165.

Bassler, M., Potratz, B. & Krauthauser, H. (1995). Der "Helping Alliance Questionnaire" (HAQ) von Luborsky [The Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ) by Luborsky]. Psychotherapeut, 40(1), 23–32

Bethea, A. R., Acosta, M. C., & Haller, D. L. (2008). Patient versus therapist alliance: whose perception matters? Journal Of Substance Abuse Treatment, 35(2), 174-183.

Bieschke, K. J., Bowman, G. D., Hopkins, M., Levine, H., & McFadden. (1995). Improvement and satisfaction in short-term therapy at a university counseling center. Journal of College Student Development, 36, 553-559.

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Broome, K.M. (1996).  Antisocial personality and drug abuse treatment process.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation.  Texas Christian University, Fort Worth.

Brotman, M. A. (2004). Therapeutic alliance and adherence in cognitive therapy for depression. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Burns, J. W., & Evon, D. (2007). Common and specific process factors in cardiac rehabilitation: Independent and interactive effects of the working alliance and self-efficacy. Health Psychology, 26(6), 684-692.

Busseri, M. A., & Tyler, J. D. (2003). Interchangeability of the Working Alliance Inventory and Working Alliance Inventory, Short Form. Psychological Assessment, 15(2), 193-197.

Busseri, M. A., & Tyler, J. D. (2004). Client-Therapist agreement on target problems, working alliance, and counselling outcome. . Psychotherapy Research, 14(1), 77-88.

Card, C.A. (1991).  Therapeutic alliance, complementarity, and distress during stress prevention training after HIV testing.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation.  New School for Social Research.  New York, NY.

Castonguay, L. G., Goldfried, M. R., Wiser, S., Raue, P. J., & Hayes, A. M. (1996). Predicting the effect of cognitive therapy for Depression: A study of Unique and common factors. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 64, 497-504.

Chilly, C. (2004). The effects of the interpersonal framework of intervention on therapeutic compliance, alliance, and outcome. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. York University, Toronto, Canada

Cislo, D.A. (1988).  Client perceptions of the therapeutic alliance and session outcome.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation.  University of Toledo, Toledo, OH.

Clarkin, J.F., & Crilly, J.L. (1987).  Therapeutic alliance and hospital treatment outcome.  Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 38, 871-875.

Cloitre, M., Chase Stovall-McClough, K., Miranda, R., & Chemtob, C. M. (2004). Therapeutic Alliance, Negative Mood Regulation, and Treatment Outcome in Child Abuse-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(3), 411-416.

Coleman, D. (2006). Client personality, working alliance and outcome: a pilot study. Social Work in Mental Health, 4(4), 83-98.

Connors, G. J., Carroll, K. M., DiClemente, C. C., Longabaugh, R., & Donovan, D. M. (1997). The therapeutic alliance and its relationship to alcoholism treatment participation and outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(4), 588-598.

Constantino, M. J., Arnow, B. A., Blasey, C., & Agras, W. S. (2005). The Association Between Patient Characteristics and the Therapeutic Alliance in Cognitive-Behavioral and Interpersonal Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(2), 203-211.

Crits-Cristoph, P., Cooper, A., & Luborsky, L. (1988). The accuracy of therapists' interpretations and the outcome of dynamic psychotherapy.  Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 490-495.

Davis, L. W., & Lysaker, P. H. (2007). Therapeutic alliance and improvements in work performance over time in patients with schizophrenia. The Journal Of Nervous And Mental Disease, 195(4), 353-357.

De Roten, Y., Fischer, M., Drapeau, M., Beretta, V., Kramer, U., Favre, N., et al. (2004). Is one assessment enough? Patterns of helping alliance development and outcome. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 11(5), 324-331.

Dearing, R. L., Barrick, C., Dermen, K. H., & Walitzer, K. S. (2005). Indicators of Client Engagement: Influences on Alcohol Treatment Satisfaction and Outcomes. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19(1), 71-78.

Deu, A. Heimbrock, F., & Röhrle B. (2009). Der Zusammenhang zwischen Merkmalen Sozialer Netzwerke und der therapeutischen Beziehung. Eine kombinierte Prozess-Outcome-Studie [The relation between social network attributes and the therapeutic relationship - A combined process-outcome study]. In Röhrle, B., Laireiter, A. R. (Eds.). Soziale Unterstützung und Psychotherapie (pp. 227-253). Tübingen, Germany: dgvt Verlag.

Dorsch,  B., & Joraschky, P. (2002). Katamnestische Untersuchung an Patienten mit einer Angststörung nach stationarer Therapie [Follow-up study of patients with anxiety disorders after inpatient therapy]. Lage: Verlag Hans Jacobs.

Dundon, W. D., Pettinati, H. M., Lynch, K. G., Xie, H., Varillo, K. M., Makadon, C., et al. (2008). The therapeutic alliance in medical-based interventions impacts outcome in treating alcohol dependence. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 95(3), 230-236.

Dunn, H., Morrison, A. P., & Bentall, R. P. (2006). The relationship between patient suitability, therapeutic alliance, homework compliance and outcome in cognitive therapy for psychosis. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 13(3), 145-152.

Eaton, T. T., Abeles, N., & Gutfreund, M. J. (1988). Therapeutic alliance and outcome:  Impact of treatment lenght and pretreatment symptomology. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice and Training, 25, 536-542.

Emmerling, M. E., & Whelton, W. J. (2009). Stages of change and the working alliance in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research, 19(6), 687-698.

Fakhoury, W. K. H., White, I., Priebe, S. & PLAO Study Group (2007). Be good to your patient: How the therapeutic relationship in the treatment of patients admitted to assertive outreach affects rehospitalization. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 789-791.

Feeley, W.M. (1993).  Treatment components of cognitive therapy for major depression:  the good, the bad, and the inert.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation.  University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Ferleger, N.A. (1993).  The relationship of dependency and self-criticism to alliance, complementarity and outcome in short-term dynamic psychotherapy.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation.  Fordham University, Bronx, NY.

Florsheim, P., Shotorbani, S., Guest-Warnick, G., Barratt, T., & Hwang, W. (2000). Role of the working alliance in treatment of delinquent boys in community-based programs. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 94-107.

Flückiger, C., Regli, D. & Grawe, K. (2005). Allgemeine Psychotherapie im Gruppensetting: Das Zusammenspiel von gruppen- und interventionsspezifischen Wirkfaktoren [General psychotherapy in the group setting: Interaction between group- and interventionspecific factors]. Gruppenpsychotherapie und Gruppendynamik, 41(3), 306-322.

Forbes, D., Parslow, R., Creamer, M., Allen, N., McHugh, T., & Hopwood, M. (2008). Mechanisms of anger and treatment outcome in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(2), 142-149.

Forman, N.W. (1990).  The nature of trait empathy in clients with chronic pain and their counselors and its impact on the development of the working allianc and outcome.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus.

Frank, A. F., & Gunderson, J., G. (1990). The role of the therapeutic alliance in the treatment of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 228-236.

Freitas, T. T. (2001). The relationship between neurocognitive impairment, working alliance, and length of stay in a therapeutic community. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Norfolk State University, Virginia USA

Fries, A., Pfammatter, M., Andres, K., & Brenner, H. D. (2003). Wirksamkeit und Prozessmerkmale einer psychoedukativen und bewältigungsorientierten Gruppentherapie für schizophren und schizoaffektiv Erkrankte [Outcome and process characteristics of a psychoeducational and coping-oriented group therapy for patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder]. Verhaltenstherapie, 13(4), 237-243.

Gaiton, L. R. (2004). Investigation of therapeutic alliance in a treatment study with substance-abusing women with Ptsd. Dissertation Abstracts International. Section B: Physical Sciences and Engineering, 65(09), 4828-4828.

Gallop, R., Kennedy, S.H., & Stern, S.D. (1994).  Therapeutic alliance on an inpatient unit for eating disorders.  International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16, 405-410.

Gaston, L., Marmar, C. R., Thompson, L. W., & Gallager, D. (1991). Alliance prediction of outcome Beyond in-treatment symptomatic change as psychotherapy progresses. Psychotherapy Research, 1, 104-112.

Gaston, L., Piper, W.E., Debbane, E.G., Bienvenu, J.P., & Garant, J. (1994).  Alliance and technique for predicting outcome in short- and long-term analytic psychotherapy.  Psychotherapy Research, 4, 121- 135.

Gaston, L., Thompson, L., Gallager, D., Cournoyer, L. G., & Gagnon, R. (1998). Alliance, technique and their interactions in predicting outcome of behavioral, cognitive and brief dynamic therapy. Psychotherapy Research, 8, 190-209.

Geiser, F., Bassler, M., Bents, H., Carls, W., Joraschky, P., Michelitsch, B., et al. (2002). Bewertung des Therapieerfolgs durch Patienten mit Angststörungen nach stationärer Psychotherapie [Patient's subjective assessment of therapy outcome after inpatient psychotherapy for anxiety disorders.] Der Nervenarzt, 73(1), 59-64.

Geider, F. J. (1997). Die Messung therapeutischer Allianz: Dimensionierung und Konstruktvalidierung einer deutschen Version der California Psychotherapeutic Alliance Scales (CALPAS) [The measurement of therapeutic alliance: Dimensionality and construct validation of a German version of the California Psychotherapeutic Alliance Scales (CALPAS).] Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg.

Gerstley, L., McLellan, A.T., Alterman, A.I., Woody, G.E., Luborsky, L, & Prout, M. (1989).  Ability to form an alliance with the therapist:  A possible marker of prognosis for patients with antisocial personality disorder.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 508-512.

Godfrey, E., Chalder, T., Ridsdale, L., Seed, P., & Ogden, J. (2007). Investigating the 'active ingredients' of cognitive behaviour therapy and counselling for patients with chronic fatigue in primary care: Developing a new process measure to assess treatment fidelity and predict outcome. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46(3), 253-272.

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Greenberg, L. S., & Malcolm, W. (2002). Resolving unfinished business: Relating process to outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(2), 406-416.

Greenberg, L. S., & Webster, M. C. (1982). Resolving decisional conflict by Gestalt two-chair  dialogue: Relating process to outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29, 468-477.

Grob, M.C., & Eisen, S.V. (1989).  Most likely to succeed:  Correlates of good versus poor hospital outcome in young adult inpatients.  Psychiatric Hospital, 20, 23-30.

Gunderson, J. G., Najavits, L. M., Leonhard, C., Sullivan, C. N., & Sabo, A. N. (1997). Ontogeny of the therapeutic alliance in borderline patients. Psychotherapy Research, 7, 301-309.

Gunther, G.J. (1992).  Therapeutic alliance, patient object relations and outcome in psychotherapy.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation.  Michigan State University, East Lansing.

Gutfreund, M.J. (1992).  Therapist interventions:  Their relation to therapeutic alliance and outcome in dynamic psychotherapy.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation.   Michigan State University, East Lansing.

Hansson, L., & Berglund (1992).  Stability of therapeutic alliance and its relationship to outcome in short-term inpatient psychiatric care.  Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 20, 45-50.

Hardy, G. E., Cahill, J., Shapiro, D. A., Barkham, M., Rees, A., & Macaskill, N. (2001). Client interpersonal and cognitive styles as predictors of response to time-limited cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(5), 841-845.

Hartley, D. E., & Strupp, H. H. (1983). The therapeutic alliance: Its relationship to outcome in brief psychotherapy. In J. Masling (Ed.), Empirical studies in analytic theories. (Vol. 1, pp. 1-37). Hillside, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hartmann, H.A. (2001). Clients' contribution to the alliance and the role it plays in outcome. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Adelpi University

Hatcher, R. L., & Barends, A. W. (1996). Patient's view of the alliance in psychotherapy: Exploratory factor analysis of three alliance measures. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 64, 1326-1336.

Hawley, L. L., & Moon-Ho Ringo, H. (2006). The Relationship of Perfectionism, Depression, and Therapeutic Alliance During Treatment for Depression: Latent Difference Score Analysis. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 930-942.

Hayes, S. A., Hope, D. A., VanDyke, M. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (2007). Working Alliance for Clients with Social Anxiety Disorder: Relationship with Session Helpfulness and Within-Session Habituation. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 36(1), 34-42.

Hays, V.L., (1994).  The effects of the therapeutic alliance  and social support on therapy outcome and mental health of women.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation.   University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Hervé, M.-J., White-Koning, M., Paradis-Guennou, M., Guiraud, A., Picot, M.-C., Grandjean, H., et al. (2008). Adaptation d'une echelle d'alliance therapeutique au contexte des consultations mere-nourrisson. Etude preliminaire [Adaptation of a therapeutic alliance scale in mother-infant consultations. A preliminary study]. Devenir, 20(1), 65-85.

Hilliard, R. B., Henry, W. P., & Strupp, H. H. (2000). An interpersonal model of psychotherapy: Linking patient and therapist developmental history, therapeutic process, and types of outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 125-133.

Hopkins, M., & Ramsundar, N. (2006). Which factors predict case management services and how do these services relate to client outcomes? Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 29(3), 219-222.

Hopkins, W.E. (1988).  The effects of conceptual level matching on the working alliance and outcome in time-limited counseling.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation.  University of Maryland, College Park.

Horowitz , M. J., Marmar, C., Weiss, D. S., DeWitt, K. N., & Rosenbaum, R. (1984). Brief psychotherapy of bereavement reactions: The relationship of process to outcome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 438-448.

Horvath, A. O. (1981).  An exploratory study of the working alliance:  Its measurement and relationship to outcome. Unpublished  doctoral dissertation, Vancouver, Canada.

Howard, I. (2003). Interpersonal factors in relationship to therapy outcome and therapeutic alliance in a cohort of multiple sclerosis patients. Unpublished  doctoral dissertation, Alliant International University, San Francisco.

Howard, I., Turner, R., Olkin, R., & Mohr, D. C. (2006). Therapeutic alliance mediates the relationship between interpersonal problems and depression outcome in a cohort of multiple sclerosis patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(9), 1197-1204.

Huber, D., Brandl, T., Henrich, G., & von Rad, M. (2003). Interaktive Beziehungsmuster und ihre Bedeutung für psychotherapeutische Veränderungen [Satisfaction and compliance after a psychosomatic-psychotherapeutic consultation session]. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 32(2), 85-93.

Ilgen, M. A., McKellar, J., Moos, R., & Finney, J. W. (2006a). Therapeutic alliance and the relationship between motivation and treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 31(2), 157-162.

Ilgen, M., Tiet, Q., Finney, J., & Moos, R. H. (2006b). Self-Efficacy, Therapeutic Alliance, and Alcohol-Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(3), 465.

Irelan, C. S. (2004). The therapeutic alliance, resolution of alliance ruptures and termination outcome. Central Michigan University, Michigan.

Jacob, K. L.  (2003). Toward understanding change in psychotherapy: A closer look at the relationship between client-therapist match and treatment outcome. Unpublished  doctoral dissertation, Clark University

Janecke, N. (2003). Bedeutung der Motivation und therapeutischen Beziehung in der Psychotherapie [The importance of motivation and therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy]. Unpublished doctoral disseration, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Johansson, H. k., & Eklund, M. (2006). Helping alliance and early dropout from psychiatric out-patient care: the influence of patient factors. Social Psychiatry And Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41(2), 140-147.

Joyce, A. S., & Piper, W. E. (1998). Expectancy, the therapeutic alliance, and treatment outcome in short-term Individual psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 7, 236-248.

Joyce, A. S., Ogrodniczuk, J. S., Piper, W. E., & McCallum, M. (2003). The alliance as mediator of expectancy effects in short-term individual therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(4), 672-679.

Jumes, M.T. (1995).  The developmental course of the inpatient working alliance in state psychiatric hospital clients.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas.

Kabuth, B., De Tychey, C., & Vidailhet, C. (2005). Alliance therapeutique avec les mères et evolution clinique des enfants d'un hôpital de jour [Mothers' therapeutic alliance and children outcome in a day hospital]. Annales Médico Psychologiques, 163(6), 486-492.

Karver, M., Shirk, S., Handelsman, J. B., Fields, S., Crisp, H., Gudmundsen, G., et al. (2008). Relationship Processes in Youth Psychotherapy: Measuring Alliance, Alliance-Building Behaviors, and Client Involvement. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 16(1), 15-28.

Katz, J. (1999). Self-handicapping, the working alliance, Intrepersonal tendencies and the prediction of drop-out. Unpublished doctoral disseration, New School for Social Research, New York.

Kech, S. (2008). Einflussfaktoren auf den Behandlungserfolg der Interpersonellen Psychotherapie bei stationären Depressionspatienten: Analyse der Wirkmechanismen [Determinats of success of interpersonal psychotherapy with depressive inpatients: Analysis of effective factors.] Published doctoral disseration, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Kelly, A. E., & Yuan, K.-H. (2009). Clients' secret keeping and the working alliance in adult outpatient therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46(2), 193-202.

Kivilighan, D. M., & Shaugnessy, P. (1995). Analysis of the development of the working alliance using hierarchical linear modeling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 338-349.

Kivlighan, D. M., Jr., & Shaughnessy, P. (2000). Patterns of working alliance development: A typology of client's working alliance ratings. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(3), 362-371.

Klee, M.R., Abeles, N., & Mullere, R.T. (1990).  Therapeutic Alliance:  Early indicators, course, and outcome.  Psychotherapy, 27, 166-174.

Klein, D. N., Schwartz, J. E., Santiago, N. J., Vivian, D., Vocisano, C., Castonguay, L. G., et al. (2003). Therapeutic Alliance in Depression Treatment: Controlling for Prior Change and Patient Characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(6), 997-1006.

Knaevelsrud, C., & Maercker, A. (2007). Internet-based treatment for PTSD reduces distress and facilitates the development of a strong therapeutic alliance: a randomized controlled clinical trial. BMC Psychiatry, 7, 13-10.

Kokotovic, A. M., & Tracey, T. J. (1990). Working alliance in the early phase of counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 16-21.

Kolden, G. G. (1996). Change in early sessions of dynamic therapy: Universal processes and the generic model of psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 64, 489-496.

Konzag, T., Bademer-Greulich, U., Bahreke, U., & Fikentscher, E. (2004). Therapeutische Beziehung und Therapieerfolg bei der stationären Psychotherapie von Persönlichkeitsstörungen [Therapeutic relationship and outcome in psychotherapy for personality disorders]. Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, 50(4), 394-405.

Kramer, U., De Roten, Y., Beretta, V., Michel, L. U. C., & Despland, J.-N. (2009). Alliance patterns over the course of short-term dynamic psychotherapy: The shape of productive relationships. Psychotherapy Research, 19(6), 699-706.

Kramer, U., De Roten, Y., Beretta, V. r., Michel, L., & Despland, J.-N. (2008). Patient's and Therapist's Views of Early Alliance Building in Dynamic Psychotherapy: Patterns and Relation to Outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(1), 89-95.

Krupnick, J. L., Sotsky, S. M., Simmens, A., Moyer, J., Elkin, I., Watkins, J., & Pilkonis, P. A. (1996). The role of the alliance in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy outcome: Findings in the National Institute of Mental Health treatment of depression collaborative research program. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 64, 532-539.

Krupnick, J.L., Elkin, I., Collins, J., Simmens, S., Sotsky, S.M., Pilkonis, ,A., & Watkings, J.T. (1994).  Therapeutic alliance and clinical outcome in the NIMH Treatment of depression Collaboratitive Research Program:  Preliminary findings.  Psychotherapy, 31, 28-35.

Kukla, M., & Bond, G. R. (2009). The working alliance and employment outcomes for people with severe mental illness enrolled in vocational programs. Rehabilitation Psychology, 54(2), 157-163.

Lansford, E. (1986).  Weakenings and repairs of the working alliance in short-term psychotherapy.  Professional Psychology:  Research and Practice, 17, 364-366.

Lieberman, P. B., von Rehn, S., Dickie, E., & Elliott, B. (1992). Therapeutic effects of brief hospitalization: The role of a therapeutic alliance. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice & Research, 1(1), 56-63.

Liebler, A., Biella, M., Schulz, W. & Hartmann, U. (2004). Differenzielle Therapieverläufe und Behandlungserfolg in der stationären Gruppenpsychotherapie [Differential courses of treatment and their relation to outcome in inpatient group psychotherapy]. Gruppenpsychotherapie und Gruppendynamik. 40(1), 1-21

Loncek, B., Banks, S., Way, B., & Bonaparte, E. (2002). An empirical model of therapeutic process for psychiatric emergency room clients with dual disorders. Social Work Research, 26(3), 132.

Luborsky, L., Crits-Cristoph, P., Alexander, L., Margolis, M., & Cohen, M. (1983). Two helping alliance methods for predicting outcomes of psychotherapy: A counting signs vs. a global rating method. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 171, 480-491.

Luborsky, L., McLellan, A. T., Woody, G. E., O'Brien, C. P., & Auerbach, A. (1985). Therapist success and its determinants.  Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 602-611.

Mallinckrodt, B. (1993). Session impact, working alliance, and treatment outcome in brief counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40, 25-32.

Mallinckrodt, B. (1996). Change in working alliance, social support and psychological symptoms in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 448-455.

Marmar, C. R., Gaston, L., Gallager, D., & Thompson, L. W. (1989b).  Therapeutic alliance and outcome in behavioral, cognitive, and brief dynamic psychotherapy in late-life depression. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 177, 464-472.

Marmar, C., Weiss, D. S., & Gaston, L. (1989a). Toward the validation of the California Therapeutic Alliance Rating System. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1, 46-52.

Marmarosh, C. L., Gelso, C. J., Markin, R. D., Majors, R., Mallery, C., & Choi, J. (2009). The real relationship in psychotherapy: Relationships to adult attachments, working alliance, transference, and therapy outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(3), 337-350.

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AAS = Alberta Alliance Scale

AE = Active Engagement

AOCS = Alliance Observation Coding System

AQ = Alliance Questions

ARM = Agnew Relationship Measure

AWR = Alliance Weakenings and Repairs

BAS = Berlin Alliance Scale

BLRI = Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory

CALPAS = California Psychotherapy Alliance Scale

CALTARS = California Therapeutic Alliance Rating Scale

CIS = Client Involvement Scale

CS = Coordination Scale

EH = Patient expectation of helpfulness

FAI = Facilitative Alliance Inventory

HA(r) = Penn Helping Alliance Scale - Rated

HAq = Helping Alliance Questionnaire - Self-Rated

HA(cs) = Helping Alliance Counting Signs

HRQ = Helping Relationship Questionnaire

ITAS = various inpatient therapeutic alliance scales

ITGA = Inpatient Task and Goal Agreement

IVRS = Interpersonal Variables Rating Scale

NAS = Neuropsychology Alliance Scale, Prigatano Alliance Scale

NSI = Non Standard Instrument (Measure developed for the specific research

project) OAS = Observer Alliance Scale

BPSR = Bern Post Session Report

SASB = Structural Analysis of Social Behavior

TARS = Therapeutic Alliance Rating Scale

TBS = Therapeutic Bond Scale

STSTPRS = Systematic Treatment Selection Therapy Process Rating Scale

TRS = Therapeutic Relationship Scale

VTAS = Vanderbilt Therapeutic Alliance Rating Scale

VPPS = Vanderbilt Psychotherapy Process Scale

WAI = Working Alliance Inventory

WAI-S = Working Alliance Inventory - short version

WASu = Working Alliance Survey

WASc = Working Alliance Scale


Select the rater of alliance and rater of the outcome. The default is the client as the rater of both. Note that the combination of raters, such as Client & Therapist, are within-study comparisons. That is, if you select Client & Therapist, you are selecting studies that report both a client and therapist rating of the alliance (or outcome). Save Analysis Dataset as a .csv file Save Full Dataset as a .csv file