Meta-analysis of Alliance-Outcome Correlations

Forest Plot

Forest plot presenting data from each study as well as the overall, random effets aggregate estimate and the prediction interval.

Key Statistics

Key parameter estimates from a random effects meta-analysis using Restricted-Maximum Likelihood (REML) estimation. All analyses were performed using the metafor package available for R (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/metafor/index.html). Additional information from the analysis is available on the 'Output' tab.

Feedback

If you have questions or feedback regarding this site, please contact the maintainers at mashiny@byu.edu
This table provides the R output in raw form. This application uses the metafor package to perform the analyses. Note that we have used the Fisher z-transformation method when performing the meta-analysis. Thus, to replicate the values reported in Forest Plot, you will need to back transform to the correlation metric.

          

          

Select Data to Present

Choose which dataset to view. The default is the analysis dataset. That is the dataset used in the meta-analysis. If you would like to see the entire dataset, click on 'Full Dataset'.
References

 

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Ilgen, M. A., McKellar, J., Moos, R., & Finney, J. W. (2006a). Therapeutic alliance and the relationship between motivation and treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 31(2), 157-162.

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Johansson, H. k., & Eklund, M. (2006). Helping alliance and early dropout from psychiatric out-patient care: the influence of patient factors. Social Psychiatry And Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41(2), 140-147.

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Kabuth, B., De Tychey, C., & Vidailhet, C. (2005). Alliance therapeutique avec les mères et evolution clinique des enfants d'un hôpital de jour [Mothers' therapeutic alliance and children outcome in a day hospital]. Annales Médico Psychologiques, 163(6), 486-492.

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Katz, J. (1999). Self-handicapping, the working alliance, Intrepersonal tendencies and the prediction of drop-out. Unpublished doctoral disseration, New School for Social Research, New York.

Kech, S. (2008). Einflussfaktoren auf den Behandlungserfolg der Interpersonellen Psychotherapie bei stationären Depressionspatienten: Analyse der Wirkmechanismen [Determinats of success of interpersonal psychotherapy with depressive inpatients: Analysis of effective factors.] Published doctoral disseration, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. http://www.freidok.uni-freiburg.de/volltexte/5318/

Kelly, A. E., & Yuan, K.-H. (2009). Clients' secret keeping and the working alliance in adult outpatient therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46(2), 193-202.

Kivilighan, D. M., & Shaugnessy, P. (1995). Analysis of the development of the working alliance using hierarchical linear modeling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 338-349.

Kivlighan, D. M., Jr., & Shaughnessy, P. (2000). Patterns of working alliance development: A typology of client's working alliance ratings. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(3), 362-371.

Klee, M.R., Abeles, N., & Mullere, R.T. (1990).  Therapeutic Alliance:  Early indicators, course, and outcome.  Psychotherapy, 27, 166-174.

Klein, D. N., Schwartz, J. E., Santiago, N. J., Vivian, D., Vocisano, C., Castonguay, L. G., et al. (2003). Therapeutic Alliance in Depression Treatment: Controlling for Prior Change and Patient Characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(6), 997-1006.

Knaevelsrud, C., & Maercker, A. (2007). Internet-based treatment for PTSD reduces distress and facilitates the development of a strong therapeutic alliance: a randomized controlled clinical trial. BMC Psychiatry, 7, 13-10.

Kokotovic, A. M., & Tracey, T. J. (1990). Working alliance in the early phase of counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 16-21.

Kolden, G. G. (1996). Change in early sessions of dynamic therapy: Universal processes and the generic model of psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 64, 489-496.

Konzag, T., Bademer-Greulich, U., Bahreke, U., & Fikentscher, E. (2004). Therapeutische Beziehung und Therapieerfolg bei der stationären Psychotherapie von Persönlichkeitsstörungen [Therapeutic relationship and outcome in psychotherapy for personality disorders]. Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, 50(4), 394-405.

Kramer, U., De Roten, Y., Beretta, V., Michel, L. U. C., & Despland, J.-N. (2009). Alliance patterns over the course of short-term dynamic psychotherapy: The shape of productive relationships. Psychotherapy Research, 19(6), 699-706.

Kramer, U., De Roten, Y., Beretta, V. r., Michel, L., & Despland, J.-N. (2008). Patient's and Therapist's Views of Early Alliance Building in Dynamic Psychotherapy: Patterns and Relation to Outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(1), 89-95.

Krupnick, J. L., Sotsky, S. M., Simmens, A., Moyer, J., Elkin, I., Watkins, J., & Pilkonis, P. A. (1996). The role of the alliance in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy outcome: Findings in the National Institute of Mental Health treatment of depression collaborative research program. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 64, 532-539.

Krupnick, J.L., Elkin, I., Collins, J., Simmens, S., Sotsky, S.M., Pilkonis, ,A., & Watkings, J.T. (1994).  Therapeutic alliance and clinical outcome in the NIMH Treatment of depression Collaboratitive Research Program:  Preliminary findings.  Psychotherapy, 31, 28-35.

Kukla, M., & Bond, G. R. (2009). The working alliance and employment outcomes for people with severe mental illness enrolled in vocational programs. Rehabilitation Psychology, 54(2), 157-163.

Lansford, E. (1986).  Weakenings and repairs of the working alliance in short-term psychotherapy.  Professional Psychology:  Research and Practice, 17, 364-366.

Lieberman, P. B., von Rehn, S., Dickie, E., & Elliott, B. (1992). Therapeutic effects of brief hospitalization: The role of a therapeutic alliance. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice & Research, 1(1), 56-63.

Liebler, A., Biella, M., Schulz, W. & Hartmann, U. (2004). Differenzielle Therapieverläufe und Behandlungserfolg in der stationären Gruppenpsychotherapie [Differential courses of treatment and their relation to outcome in inpatient group psychotherapy]. Gruppenpsychotherapie und Gruppendynamik. 40(1), 1-21

Loncek, B., Banks, S., Way, B., & Bonaparte, E. (2002). An empirical model of therapeutic process for psychiatric emergency room clients with dual disorders. Social Work Research, 26(3), 132.

Luborsky, L., Crits-Cristoph, P., Alexander, L., Margolis, M., & Cohen, M. (1983). Two helping alliance methods for predicting outcomes of psychotherapy: A counting signs vs. a global rating method. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 171, 480-491.

Luborsky, L., McLellan, A. T., Woody, G. E., O'Brien, C. P., & Auerbach, A. (1985). Therapist success and its determinants.  Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 602-611.

Mallinckrodt, B. (1993). Session impact, working alliance, and treatment outcome in brief counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40, 25-32.

Mallinckrodt, B. (1996). Change in working alliance, social support and psychological symptoms in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 448-455.

Marmar, C. R., Gaston, L., Gallager, D., & Thompson, L. W. (1989b).  Therapeutic alliance and outcome in behavioral, cognitive, and brief dynamic psychotherapy in late-life depression. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 177, 464-472.

Marmar, C., Weiss, D. S., & Gaston, L. (1989a). Toward the validation of the California Therapeutic Alliance Rating System. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1, 46-52.

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AAS = Alberta Alliance Scale

AE = Active Engagement

AOCS = Alliance Observation Coding System

AQ = Alliance Questions

ARM = Agnew Relationship Measure

AWR = Alliance Weakenings and Repairs

BAS = Berlin Alliance Scale

BLRI = Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory

CALPAS = California Psychotherapy Alliance Scale

CALTARS = California Therapeutic Alliance Rating Scale

CIS = Client Involvement Scale

CS = Coordination Scale

EH = Patient expectation of helpfulness

FAI = Facilitative Alliance Inventory

HA(r) = Penn Helping Alliance Scale - Rated

HAq = Helping Alliance Questionnaire - Self-Rated

HA(cs) = Helping Alliance Counting Signs

HRQ = Helping Relationship Questionnaire

ITAS = various inpatient therapeutic alliance scales

ITGA = Inpatient Task and Goal Agreement

IVRS = Interpersonal Variables Rating Scale

NAS = Neuropsychology Alliance Scale, Prigatano Alliance Scale

NSI = Non Standard Instrument (Measure developed for the specific research

project) OAS = Observer Alliance Scale

BPSR = Bern Post Session Report

SASB = Structural Analysis of Social Behavior

TARS = Therapeutic Alliance Rating Scale

TBS = Therapeutic Bond Scale

STSTPRS = Systematic Treatment Selection Therapy Process Rating Scale

TRS = Therapeutic Relationship Scale

VTAS = Vanderbilt Therapeutic Alliance Rating Scale

VPPS = Vanderbilt Psychotherapy Process Scale

WAI = Working Alliance Inventory

WAI-S = Working Alliance Inventory - short version

WASu = Working Alliance Survey

WASc = Working Alliance Scale

Moderators

Select the rater of alliance and rater of the outcome. The default is the client as the rater of both. Note that the combination of raters, such as Client & Therapist, are within-study comparisons. That is, if you select Client & Therapist, you are selecting studies that report both a client and therapist rating of the alliance (or outcome). Save Analysis Dataset as a .csv file Save Full Dataset as a .csv file